Art Nouveau (french for 'new art'), also known as Jugendstil (German for 'young style'), is an international art movement and style of art, architecture, and applied art (especially decorative arts) which peaked in popularity at the turn of the 20th century (1890-1905). Art Nouveau is characterized by organic, floral, and other plant-inspired motifs with highly-stylized flowing curvilinear forms- a reaction to the academic art of the 19th century. It is an approach to design in which artists work on everything from furniture to architecture, incorporating art into many aspects of day-to-day life.
Art Nouveau's 15-year peak was felt strongly throughout Europe, but its influence was global. It is known in various guises frequently with localized tendencies. In France, Hector Guimard's subway entrances shaped Paris's landscape and Emile Galle was at the center of the school of thought in Nancy. Victor Horta had an impact on Belgian architecture. Magazines like Jugend helped spread the style in Germany, especially in graphic arts, while in Vienna secessionists influenced architecture and art throughout Austria-Hungary. Art Nouveau was also a movement of distinct individuals including Gustav Klimt, Charls Rennie Mackintosh, Rene Lalique, Alfons Mucha, Louis Comfort Tiffany, and Antoni Gaudi- each interpreting it in their own individual style.
Cold Cast is a modern method of casting sculptures using a mixture of resin and powdered polymer materials. The finished sculpture has a surface which looks very similar to traditionally cast material, but tends to be much lighter.